forest elephant biology and ecology. Behavior, social system, communication

  • Elephant Tails

    Very long term studies are rare in all branches of science because they are hard to fund and to staff. But only such studies can give us insights into many population-level events and the unique strategies and behaviors expressed by…

    February 27, 2019
  • Ecology

    (Above) A typical extended social grouping of forest elephants: A mature female with three dependent offspring accompanied by her oldest daughter (last on the right) and the daughter’s calf. Once they reach their 20s, female forest elephants give birth about…

    April 28, 2017